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無雙直傳 | 25th Jul 2006, 01:01 AM | 武術及功夫 | (1417 Reads)

Choy Lee Fut

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以下有關蔡李佛的簡介,比很多中文版詳細,當中提及蔡李佛是反清份子的功夫,所指的反清份子其實是太平天國。

Choy Lee Fut

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蔡李佛
Choy Lee Fut
Pinyin:Cài Lǐ Fó
Yale Cantonese:Choi3 Lei5 Fat1
Also transliterated:Choy Li Fut
Choy Lay Fut
Choi Lei Fut
Choy Lai Fut
Choy Ley Fut
Choi Lei Faht
Tsai Li Fo

Like other southern Chinese martial arts, Choy Lee Fut features Five Animal techniques based on the tiger, dragon, crane, leopard, and snake but is distinguished from other southern styles by long, swinging, circular movements and twisting body motions more indicative of northern styles.

As a Southern Shaolin style with Five Animal techniques, Hung Kuen is a close relative of Choy Lee Fut and is said by some Choy Lee Fut branches to be the style that Chan Yuen-Wu taught founder Chan Heung. The stances of Choy Lee Fut are as wide as those of Hung Kuen, but higher—though not as high as those of Wing Chun, another southern Chinese martial art—trading off some of the stability and root of Hung Kuen stances to allow more mobile footwork. In order to generate the characteristic whipping power of Choy Lee Fut, the hips and shoulders must be decoupled. Though Hung Kuen also features whipping power, particularly in its crane techniques, the hips and the shoulders are more frequently locked in the same plane, resulting in a "harder" form of power. Hung Gar and Wing Chun both hold the torso perpendicular to an opponent, to allow for the full use of both arms. By contrast, Choy Lee Fut holds the torso at an angle to the opponent to reduce the target area exposed to him.

Choy Lee Fut is a characterized as a "soft-hard", "external" style. The curriculum was designed so that anti-Qing rebels could quickly gain practical proficiency and also incorporates a wide range of weapons. Several common movements have specific sounds (kiai) associated with them—for example, "yik" when throwing punches "Wah" was used when using a Tiger Claw and "dik" when kicking—supposedly so that friendly forces could recognize each other in battle and to force the practitioner to coordinate his breathing patterns with his movements.

Like many martial arts, Choy Lee Fut has diverged into several lineages that differ not only in terms of training and emphasis but also on what they see as the true history of the style.

The popularity of Choy Lee Fut is strong in Hong Kong, Canada, the United States, and growing elsewhere. In the late 20th century, the style was popularized in the Canada and the United States.

Contents

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The origins of Choy Lee Fut

Chan Heung (陳享)[1] was born in Guangdong Province, China in 1805 or 1806. At the age of six or seven, he began to study Kung Fu from his uncle, Chan Yuen-Wu (陳遠護),[2] a master of Southern Shaolin. So proficient as an adolescent that he could defeat any challenger from nearby villages, Chan Heung was ready to learn more. So he began training under another Southern Shaolin master, Lee Yau-San (李友山),[3] founder of Lee Gar, the Lee Family style. After only four or five years of training, it became apparent that Chan Heung was ready to move on once again. So Chan Heung set out to find Choy Fook (蔡褔),[4] who is said to have been a monk on Luofu Mountain. After several years of training under Choy Fook, Chan Heung returned to his home village of Ging Mui (京梅)[5] in the county of Xinhui.

The origins of Choy Lee Fut according to the Cheung Yim branch

Cheung Yim (張炎)[6] was an orphan cared for by his uncle. According to Huang Shenjiang, manager of the Fut San Hung Sing Kwoon manager, the uncle's name was Cheung Kwan and Cheung Yim was at this time a disciple of Lee Gar master Lee Yau-San. When Cheung Yim was twelve, his uncle had obligations that meant he would no longer be able to take care of Cheung Yim.

So he took Cheung Yim to his old friend Chan Heung in the hope that Chan would be able to take the boy in as a live-in student. However, village rules forbade Chan Heung from teaching martial arts to non-family members. Unable to take care of the boy by accepting him as a student, Chan Heung instead hired Cheung Yim to do odd jobs at his martial arts school. Cheung Yim took the opportunity to observe Chan Heung’s lessons and practiced in secret what he had gleaned (cf. Yang Luchan). One night, Chan Heung came upon Cheung Yim practicing. Impressed by the boy’s motivation, Chan Heung taught him secretly for several years before the other villagers found out and expelled Cheung Yim.

So in 1831, at the age of seventeen, Cheung Yim left Ging Mui, but not before Chan Heung gave him a letter of introduction and instructions to seek out the monk Ching Cho (青草)[7] at the Zhajian Temple on Mount Bapai in Guangxi Province. Absent the distractions of secular life, Cheung Yim was able to give himself over completely to the things that the monk Ching Cho had to impart: his knowledge of Fut Gar Kung Fu and traditional Chinese medicine, a commitment to the overthrow of the foreign Manchu Qing Dynasty, and a new name, Hung-Sing (鴻勝), which reflected that patriotic ideal.

Cheung, now Cheung Hung-Sing, returned to Chan Heung and shared with his first teacher the things he had learned from his second. Chan Heung hired Cheung once again, this time as a teacher rather than as a menial/clandestine student, enabling Cheung to stay for the year or two until he left to open his own school in Foshan in 1839. Because it incorporated the Choy Gar style from Choy Fook, the Lee Gar style from Lee Yau-San, and the Fut Gar style from the monk Ching Cho, their new style became known as Choy Lee Fut.

The origins of Choy Lee Fut according to the Chan Family branch

At seven years old, Chan Heung began learning martial arts under his uncle Chan Yuen Woo. Yuen Woo was a famed master from Shaolin Temple, and taught his nephew the Buddha Style Fist or Fut Ga Kuen.

After years of study with his uncle, Chan Heung had become a consummate warrior by the early age of 15. To further his skills, Chan became a student of Lee Yau San, a Shaolin practitioner of the Lee Family Fist. Yau San was Yuen Woo's sihing or elder brother at Shaolin Temple.

Becoming proficient in the Lee Family style, Chan Heung was then referred to the Shaolin monk Choi Fook to further his martial arts knowledge. After years of intensive study with the Buddhist recluse, Chan Heung revised what he had learned and formed a new system. He combined his knowledge of 3 martial arts systems and called it "Choi Lee Fut" in honour of his teachers.[8]

Three styles that constitute Choi Lee Fut are as follows.

Chan Yuen Woo and the Buddha Style Fist Chan Heung learned the Buddha Style Fist, or Fat Ga Kuen, from his uncle Chan Yuen Woo. Yuen Woo was a famed master of Shaolin Temple.

The three sources of Choy Lee Fut

Choy Fook 蔡褔

Depending on the branch of Choy Lee Fut, Choy Fook is said to have been a master either of Northern Shaolin or of Choy Gar (蔡家),[9] which was created by Choy Gau-Yee and is said to have the longest range of the five major family styles of the southern Chinese martial arts.

Either way, Choy Fook is considered a source of Choy Lee Fut's long-range northern characteristics like its swift, mobile footwork.

Choy Fook is said to have been a descendant of Choy Gar founder Choy Gau-Yee, possibly his son.

Lee Yau-San 李友山

Said to be a student of Jee Sin while others believe him to be a student of Li Sik Hoi-one of the 5 Ancestors of the Hung Mun, Lee Yau-San is known not only as a teacher of Chan Heung, and recently discovered of Cheung Hung Sing as well, but as the founder of Lee Gar (李家)[10] which, like Choy Gar, is one of the five major family styles of the southern Chinese martial arts.

The prominence of the leopard punch hand formation within Choy Lee Fut may be the influence of Lee Gar, a middle-range style which emphasizes leopard techniques.

Fut Gar 佛家

Fut Gar (佛家),[11] literally "Buddha Family," specializes in palm techniques and for this reason is also known as Buddha Family Palm, Buddhist Palm, or Buddha Palm. Monk Ching Cho Woe Serng was responsible for spreading the Fut Gar system throughout Guandong. Both the left and right hand are used in attack and defense. Long and short-range footwork is employed.

Technical characteristics of different branches

Chan Family branch

Chan Family Choy Lee Fut emphasizes a soft, loose, flexible waist and faces the opponent at an angle to reduce the target area exposed.

Cheung Yim branch

Though still characterized by the whipping power indicative of Choy Lee Fut, the Cheung Yim branch maintains a closer alignment between the hips and the shoulders, imparting a "hardness" to its power, though not to the extent of Hung Kuen.

Buk Sing branch

Because it split off from the Cheung Yim lineage before founder Tarm Sarm could complete his training, the Buk Sing lineage features a shorter syllabus comprising only a handful of routines—Sup Jee Kuen (十字拳), Ping Kuen (平拳), Kau Da (扣打), Seung Gaap Daan Gwun (雙夾單棍)—as compared to the dozens in the syllabuses of the other branches.

The incompleteness of Tarm Sarm's training did nothing to diminish his fighting prowess. As such, the emphasis of Buk Sing Choy Lee Fut on combat rather than routines reflects the proclivities and training of its founder.

One example of Tarm Sarm's approach is the "side body" (偏身) stance, which takes the idea of reducing one's exposed target area by turning the torso to its logical conclusion: turning the torso 90° away from the opponent.

Notes

 ChinesePinyinYale Cantonese 
 Chan family Hung Sing洪聖Hóng ShèngHung4 Sing3 
 Cheung Yim Hung Sing鴻勝Hóng ShèngHung4 Sing1 
 Chan Heung陳享Chén XiǎngChan4 Heung2 
 Chan Yuen-Wu陳遠護Chén YuǎnhùChan4 Yun5 Wu6 
 Lee Yau-San李友山Lǐ YǒushānLei5 Yau5 Saan1 
 Choy Fook蔡褔Cài FúChoi3 Fuk1 
 Ging Mui京梅JīngméiGing1 Mui4 
 Cheung Yim
Cheung Hung-Sing
張炎
張鴻勝
Zhāng Yán
Zhāng Hóngshèng
Jeung1 Yim4
Jeung1 Hung4 Sing1
 
 Ching Cho青草QīngcǎoChing1 Chou2literally "Green Grass," his monastic name
 Choy Gar蔡家Cài JiāChoi3 Ga1literally "Choy Family"
 Lee Gar李家Lǐ JiāLei5 Ga1literally "Lee Family"
 Fut Gar
Fut Gar Jeung
Fut Jeung
佛家
佛家掌
佛掌
Fó Jiā
Fó Jiā Zhǎng
Fó Zhǎng
Fat1 Ga1
Fat1 Ga1 Jeung2
Fat1 Jeung2
Buddhist style; literally "Buddha Family"
Buddhist Palm; literally "Buddha Family Palm"
literally "Buddha Palm"

Masters of Choy Lee Fut